If you use temporary tables, table variables, or table-valued parameters, consider conversions of them to leverage memory-optimized tables and table variables to improve performance. Dynamic SQL Temp Variables must declare a table variable inside the dynamic SQL but a Temp Table can use Temporary Tables created prior to calling the dynamic SQL. Next, we are using the Insert Into Statement to insert records into that Table variable. Like Local SQL Server temp tables, they are dropped once the session disconnects and there are no longer any more references to the table. If we have a SQL Server instance which serves multiple databases with different collations, we will find conflicting collations cause issues. Use a temp table I thought I could use a temp table but, as far as I can tell, ... How can I restore the sql_variant_property of baseType back to a table variable in SQL Server. You create the table, use it, then when you’re finished, drop it from tempdb to destroy it. as temp tables hereafter). : Sql server table variable vs. local temporary table. Earlier this week, I wrote two blog posts which are comparing performance between regular tables and temp tables. For any SQL Server Performance Tuning Issue send an email at pinal@sqlauthority.com . However, if there is a memory pressure the pages belonging to a table variable may be pushed to tempdb. Scope. He has worked for various industries in both large and small environments all with different needs. Here is the output of statistics TIME of the query ran: SQL Server Execution Times: CPU time = 562 ms, elapsed time = 576 ms. SQL Server Execution Times: CPU time = 531 ms, elapsed time = 534 ms. The results I’ve shown you in this article will suggest to you that this oversimplifies the issues. talks more about. Which is something that I would recommend. It has been a while since I have been working with SQL Server 2019 with my clients to help them with performance-related issues while working on Comprehensive Database Performance Health Check.Recently, I had a very interesting conversation with one of my clients about Cardinality Estimation for Temp Table vs Table Variable. Pinal Dave is a SQL Server Performance Tuning Expert and an independent consultant. So for most scripts you will most likely see the use of a SQL Server temp table as opposed to a table variable. Otherwise a SQL Server temp table is useful when sifting through large amounts of data. It will make network traffic. SQL Table Variable Example. Finally, you might be in a situation where you need the data to be visible only in the current session. Once the table variable is populated you can then join this as a table to yet another table and gather whatever information you need. Then I could have this temp table to compute a GROUP BY before to perform the final insert into a SQL table. Temp Table: Table Variable: A Temp table is easy to create and back up data. It is very beneficial to store data in SQL Server temp tables rather than manipulate or work with permanent tables. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); © 2006 – 2020 All rights reserved. Anyone can insert values, modify, or retrieve records from the table. Should you use temp tables or table variables in your code? is my MOST popular training with no PowerPoint presentations and, Comprehensive Database Performance Health Check, SQL SERVER – FIX: Backup Detected Log Corruption in database MyDB. Should you use temp tables or table variables in your code? Changes to table variables in SQL Server 2008. For eg: when you run the following code create table #temp(i int) insert into #temp select 345 Go create table #temp(i int) insert into #temp select 345 Go you will get an error: Table variable has a statement-level scope. In fact, a table variable is scoped to the stored procedure, batch, or user-defined function just like any local variable … – tcnolan Dec 31 '10 at 6:17 1 If I have a stored procedure which runs a bunch of set based operations, and I want to run it for say 100 different companies in my database. Cleanup of Table Variables. The table variable is a special type of the local variable that helps to store data temporarily, similar to the temp table in SQL Server. This is a very simple question and indeed many of us know about this one. D. Scenario: Table variable can be MEMORY_OPTIMIZED=ON. One problem is with creating temp tables. Table Variable and Database Scope. Its kind of normal table but it is created and populated on disk, in the system database tempdb — with a session-specific identifier packed onto the name, to differentiate between similarly-named #temp tables created from other sessions. If a developer rolls back a transaction which includes changes to the table variables, the changes made to the table variables within this particular transaction will remain intact. The global temp tables are available for all the sessions or the SQL Server connections. We have seen both table variable and temp table, they are very similar in nature, now let’s understand the difference between sql temp table and table variable, so you know which one to use and why! Many times you’ll see developers use the “DROP #Table_Name” command at the end of their statement just to clean up. 2. This is because table variables are held completely in memory and never even touch the storage of a database server, as of SQL Server 2014 (click here for more info). Before we proceed, if you want to follow along with any code samples, I suggest opening SQL Server Management Studio: Local SQL Server temp tables are created using the pound symbol or “hashtag” followed by the table name. We’ve created a table variable that will hold information regarding total quantities of a certain product sold. Hope the above gives you a bit more clarity on the benefits of each one in helping you decide whether to use a temp table or table variable in your scenarios. Table variable is also stored definition into TempDB and if the data volume is increased, sometimes it also stores data into TempDB. The main reason why Microsoft introduced table variable in SQL Server 2000 is to reduce stored procedure recompilations (a recompilation occurs when the stored procedure execution plan is recreated). Pinal is also a CrossFit Level 1 Trainer (CF-L1) and CrossFit Level 2 Trainer (CF-L2). Example: ##Global_Table_Name. Temporary tables vs table variables would be a more appropriate comparison. Temp Table or Table variable or CTE are commonly used for storing data temporarily in SQL Server. Temp Table: Table Variable: CTE: 1: Scope wise the local temp table is available only in the current session. When you are trying to load the data, the behavior of the Temp Table and Table variable is pretty much the same. Difference between CTE and Temp Table and Table Variable in SQL Server. Here are a few blog posts which are discussing the same topic in detail: If you have any question on this topic, please leave a comment and I will do my best to answer you. Syntax Here is the T-SQL for a traditional table variable. Indexes can't be created explicitly on table variables, and no statistics are kept on table variables. table variables and local temporary tables (ref. For example: In my Comprehensive Database Performance Health Check, we can work together remotely and resolve your biggest performance troublemakers in less than 4 hours. As far as performance is concerned table variables are useful with small amounts of data (like only a few rows). It cannot be seen or used by processes or queries outside of the session it is declared in. Often it is very easy to fix them and we can improve the performance of the server in just few minutes. A temporary table is a table that you create in a special database called tempdb. 1. In fact, the table variable provides all the properties of the local variable, but the local variables have some limitations, unlike temp or regular tables. I will blog about it in the separate blog post. That is to say, other parts of this transaction in question will be rolled back, but anything referencing the table variable will not, unless that portion of your script is in error. So far what I've read and known is, one of the primary advantage of having a table variable is that sql server doesn't have all that overhead of creating/managing temp tables in tempdb unlike in using temp tables. Here are a few blog posts which are discussing the same topic in detail: SQL SERVER – How to Create Table Variable and Temporary Table? Not only does this save on expensive query processing, but it may even make your code look a little cleaner. SQL SERVER – DROP Multiple Temp Tables Using Cursors on Azure Is your SQL Server running slow and you want to speed it up without sharing server credentials? View all posts by Aamir Syed, © 2020 Quest Software Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Sql temp table vs table variable. Essentially I share my business secrets to optimize SQL Server performance. Ok. Today I was at a inteview (on the job) and the lady who interviewed me swore that Table Variables are created in or uses tempdb!! by Dennis Gassen, Thomas Holzapfel, Marta. Lastly, we are selecting all the records from Table Variable, whose Total Income is … I will blog about it in the separate blog post. Also, on a final note, in terms of transactions on table variables. Another reason to use SQL Server temp tables is you have some demanding processing to do in your sql statement. Temp table will be stored in the tempdb. Have you ever opened any PowerPoint deck when you face SQL Server Performance Tuning emergencies? Also note, that in the event of name conflict (remember that SQL Server temp tables are created in the tempdb) SQL server will append a suffix to the end of the table name so that it is unique within the tempdb database. Instead, use a declaration statement to make available a fresh table variable. |   GDPR   |   Terms of Use   |   Privacy. Often, the SQL Server pundit will give sage advice about the size of result that will cause problems for a table variable. But in many cases, especially with huge amounts of data, procedures that used table variables took much longer (highlighted with red). This article describes: Scenarios which argue in favor of conversion to In-Memory. maybe i am late but i just read that using a table var instead of a #temp table is better.. has anyone had a exp. Please allow me to visualize this. They can be declared in batch or stored procedure. Next, we are using the Insert Into Statement to insert records into that Table variable. You should create a physical table to do this things. Unlike the majority of the other data types in SQL Server, you cannot use a table variable as an input or an output parameter. The code changes are usually minimal. He has authored 12 SQL Server database books, 35 Pluralsight courses and has written over 5400 articles on database technology on his blog at a https://blog.sqlauthority.com. SQL Server creates and maintains statistics for temporary tables, which lead to better cardinality estimation and optimal execution plan generation. But this process is transparent to the developer/user. All of these can be used to store the data for a temporary time. There is one point that I want to make however. There are two important factors: if you have a result of over, let us say, 1000 rows (and this figure depends on context) then you need to have a Usage Temp Table vs Table Variable. Jun 06, 2016 at 5:52AM. There are exciting prizes awaiting the winners. as temp tables hereafter). SQL Server provides CTE, Derived table, Temp table, subqueries and Temp variables for this. Join Microsoft Certified Master Kendra Little to learn the pros and cons of each structure, and take a sneak peek at new Memory Optimized Table Variables in SQL Server 2014. Table 2: Using SQL Server 2005 (time in ms). Let us run the following script and measure the time of total execution. talks more about. An interesting limitation of table variables comes into play when executing code that involves a table variable. Is your SQL Server running slow and you want to speed it up without sharing server credentials? Bad. You'll most likely need a table in which to store data temporarily. This is because table variables are held completely in memory and never even touch the storage of a database server, as of SQL Server 2014 (click here for more info). Episode 49: Table Variables vs Temp Tables in SQL Server When you code and you need to use a temporary object what do you use in SQL Server–temp tables or a table variable? Cleanup of Table Variables. Temp Table: Table Variable: Temp table is valid for a session. Answer: #temp Table (Temporary Table) temp table is a temporary table that is generally created to store session specific data. A traditional table variable represents a table in the tempdb database. Table variables have no statistics, which can resul SQL Server supports a few types of SQL Server temp tables that can be very helpful. Try both approaches and chose better one. SQL Server Performance Tuning Practical Workshop is my MOST popular training with no PowerPoint presentations and 100% practical demonstrations. Scope. with this. Fifth, if you are using a table variable with a join, you need to alias the table in order to execute the query. SQL Shack has provided him with an opportunity to contribute to a community that has given him so much throughout the years. To create a global SQL temp table, you simply use two pound symbols in front of the table name. First, we declared a Table Variable. Il est impossible de créer explicitement des index sur des variables de table et aucune statistique n’est conservée sur les variables de table. This is the primary reason, why my Comprehensive Database Performance Health Checkis just a maximum of 4 hours of service, as in most cases, we fix the problem in just a few minutes and spend the rest o… Once you learn my business secrets, you will fix the majority of problems in the future. Its scope ends when either the batch or … These tables act as the normal table and also can have constraints, index like normal tables. The temp table created in stored proc A can be accessed in stored proc B. In this blog post, we will talk about Performance Comparison between Table Variable or Temp Table. Difference between CTE and Temp Table and Table Variable: Temp Table or Table variable or CTE are commonly used for storing data temporarily in SQL Server. The only constraints that you’re allowed beyond CHECK constraints are PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE KEY, and NULL / NOT NULL . The latest SQL Server edition allows you to create a table variable as an input or output parameter of a stored procedure. But if we were only looking at a few products this could really well. If the session that we’re working in has subsequent nested sessions, the SQL Server temp tables will be visible in sessions lower in the hierarchy, but not above in the hierarchy. Lastly, we are selecting all the records from Table Variable, whose Total Income is … When querying rows based on the primary key column or the non-indexed column we get the same performance from both objects. E.g. However, starting with SQL Server 2014, memory-optimized table variables are available with the introduction of the new In-Memory OLTP that allows you to add non-clustered indexes as part of table variable’s declaration. Temp Table, Table variable and CTE are commonly used way for storing temporary data. In my, we can work together remotely and resolve your biggest performance troublemakers in. Thanks. Global SQL temp tables are useful when you want you want the result set visible to all other sessions. Table variables are created like any other variable, using the DECLARE statement. Table Variables These little buggers have so many issues, it’s hard to know where to begin. E.g. Table variable involves the effort when you usually create the normal tables. SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers ISBN: 1466405643 Page#75-76 Difference Temp Table and Table Variable – Effect of Transaction Difference TempTable and Table Variable – TempTable in Memory a Myth ObjectID in Negative – Local TempTable has Negative ObjectID. Cleanup with table variables is simply the object being unloaded from memory as soon as the scope of the table variable’s declaration expires. Join Microsoft Certified Master Kendra Little to learn the pros and cons of each structure, and take a sneak peek at new Memory Optimized Table Variables in SQL Server 2014. You can always use the “DROP” command to clean it up manually. You can use your existing read access to pull the data into a SQL Server temporary table and make adjustments from there. The following two blocks of code both create a table … Local SQL Server temp tables are created using the pound symbol or “hashtag” followed by the table name. However, unlike SQL temp tables the table variable is only accessible within the current batch. Context is Bad Middle Sector, SQL SERVER – How to Enable Index – How to Disable Index – Incorrect syntax near ‘ENABLE’, SQL SERVER – A Timeout (30000 milliseconds) was Reached While Waiting for a Transaction Response from the MSSQLSERVER, SQL Server Performance Tuning Practical Workshop. Temp Tables are physically created in the Tempdb database. First, we declared a Table Variable. They are not visible outside of the batch, meaning the concept of session hierarchy can be somewhat ignored. The SQL temp table is dropped or destroyed once the session disconnects. SQL 2016 and Azure DB do support parallel plans with memory-optimized tables and table variables, so no concerns there. It cannot be seen or used by processes or queries outside of the session it is declared in. ie as soon as you execute the statement the scope is lost In this article, you will learn about the main differences between Temp Table, Table variable and CTE. For example: #Table_name. Or, in this scenario is it better to use a SQL table to produce the intermediate result instead of a temp table? SQL Server database architect Denny Cherry explains your four options while offering the pros and cons of using temporary tables vs. table variables in SQL Server. The local variable type is table; table is the type of variable. As a general rule of thumb across many SQL SERVER communities is that if you have 1000 rows or less then go for table variable otherwise go for temp table. ⇒ Table variable (@table) is created in the memory. Stay away of both @table variable and temp #tables. As with other temporary data stores, the code can extract a result set from a relational database. By: Ben Snaidero | Updated: 2018-09-04 | Comments (7) | Related: More > T-SQL Problem. When the target is table variable, SQL Server will n See the code sample above, your loop can now reference the SQL Server temp table and process the records that meet the criteria of your goal. But Session 1, which is above session 2, will not be able to see the SQL Server temp table. table variables and local temporary tables (ref. One problem is with creating temp tables. I cannot get enough of working with TempDB and the learning never stops. Nupur Dave is a social media enthusiast and an independent consultant. It creates, populates, and uses many variables, table variables, and temp tables to accomplish this. That’s wrong; they’re all backed by temporary objects, and may very well spill to disk when you run of of scratch space. There are two alternative ways to deal with this requirement in SQL Server – table variables and temporary tables. CTEs are highly regarded because many believe they make the code for a temporary data store easier to read and maintain than other types of temporary data stores. ⇒ Table variables cannot be involved in transactions, logging or locking. Temp table result can be used by multiple users. The table variable is a special type of the local variable that helps to store data temporarily, similar to the temp table in SQL Server. Table variable does not allow TRUNCATE or ALTER table statements. Once it moved to production, the system screeched to a halt. So there is a lot of flexibility and allows the developer to be quite creative. She primarily focuses on the database domain, helping clients build short and long term multi-channel campaigns to drive leads for their sales pipeline. One of the most often used scenarios for SQL Server temp tables is within a loop of some sort. They reside in the tempdb database much like local SQL Server temp tables. Conclusion SQL Server Database Optimization Guide In the troubleshooting guide we went over the different physical bottlenecks that can; Yet Another Temp Tables Vs Table Variables Article The debate whether to use temp tables or table variables is an old; Using Union Instead of OR Sometimes slow queries can be rectified by changing the query around a bit. Applies to: SQL Server (all supported versions) Azure SQL Database. Today I will explain all of these temporary storage mechanisms and also … Let’s say you want full DDL or DML access to a table, but don’t have it. This is a very simplified example, and we wouldn’t use it if it contained a lot of rows. … : Sql server table variable vs. local temporary table. In this quick diagram, a SQL temp table is created in Session 2. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 introduces another important change to table variables. There is plenty of conventional wisdom out there and my guest Wayne Sheffield and I talk about the differences between these two objects in episode 49 of the SQL Data Partners Podcast. Cleanup with table variables is simply the object being unloaded from memory as soon as the scope of the table variable’s declaration expires. Cardinality Estimation - Table Variable Vs Temporary Table in SQL Server. A local SQL Server temp table is only visible to the current session. Worked find on the development and test boxen. CTE - Common Table Expressions. pinal @ SQLAuthority.com, SQL SERVER – Regular Table or Temp Table – TempDB Logging Explained. The memory-optimized table variable and global temp table scenarios are support in SQL Server 2014, although parallel plans are not supported in 2014, so you would not see perf benefits for large table variables or large temp tables in SQL Server 2014. Here is a quick example of setting up and using a table variable. Table variables are SQL Server local variables, but they also have some properties that resemble temp tables. In SQL Server, we have various options for storing data temporarily. Prize. Lots and lots of blocking. In SQL Server 2014 non unique indexes can be declared inline in the table variable definition. For example: #Table_name. The memory-optimized session-level temp table scenario requires a couple of features that were added in both SQL Server 2016 (RC0) and Azure SQL Database. Here’s a quick example of taking a result set and putting it into a SQL Server temp table. In four cases, I even gave up waiting. SQL temp tables are created in the tempdb database. Quest Software Inc. all RIGHTS RESERVED and gather whatever information you need the data volume is increased, it... A little cleaner much the same performance from both objects, sometimes it stores... – table variables can not be able to see the SQL Profiler from! Non-Clustered indexes in SQL Server creates and maintains statistics for temporary table variable vs temp table in sql server loop of some sort create in situation. Which lead to better cardinality Estimation and optimal execution plan generation statements tell a story. Among these three you will learn the differences among these three, he holds a of! Can extract a result set from a relational database leads for their sales pipeline statement refer to the current.... Specific data type is table ; table is the difference between CTE and temp,! Or … temp table – tempdb logging Explained ] ).push ( { } ) ; © 2006 – all... Up waiting ” followed by the table variable vs. local temporary table that is created! Select statements tell a different story, unique KEY, and NULL / not NULL sifting through amounts! Is you have some demanding processing to do so area ( and has recently a... And what you ’ re trying to load the data, the system screeched to table. Used in used defined functions table – tempdb logging Explained a temporary table in SQL Server slow... © 2006 – 2020 all RIGHTS RESERVED uses tempdb which is a memory pressure the pages to. Use SQL Server performance Tuning Issue send an email at pinal @,! Microsoft SQL Server for most scripts you will most likely see the SQL Profiler trace from table. Different collations, we can work together remotely and resolve your biggest performance troublemakers in less than 4.! Reside purely in memory normal tables, which lead to better cardinality Estimation - table variable vs. temporary. At a few rows ) the pound symbol or “ hashtag ” followed by the current user only considering amount... - insert system date variable as a execute SQL task parameter these little buggers so! Large and small environments all with different collations, we have various options for storing data temporarily SQL! Once the session it is very poor when we are going to use table variable is very when... This article, you will fix the majority of problems in the memory explain all of these can be in... Belonging to a community that has given him so much throughout the years the DECLARE statement in... Like any other variable, T-SQL scripts do not create table statement 4 hours if! Variable may be pushed to tempdb, in this article, you will learn about main... By processes or queries outside of the session it is entirely up to you and what you re. Server in just few minutes and what you ’ re allowed beyond Check constraints are primary KEY column or SQL. Have the rest of the Comments suggested comparing these results to using a in! To contribute to a table variable and temporary tables uses tempdb which is a SQL Server temp table use. If we were only looking at a few types of temporary tables training with no PowerPoint presentations and 100 Practical. But session 1, which lead to better cardinality Estimation and optimal execution plan generation up without Server. Comprehensive table variable vs temp table in sql server performance Health Check, we are going to use table variable may be pushed tempdb! Database certifications can be accessed table variable vs temp table in sql server stored proc a can be somewhat ignored but that is generally created to data! 2014 non unique indexes can be used by multiple users statement to make however any other variable, using pound. Resul Stay away of both @ table variable and CTE or “ ”. Temp table name T-SQL for a temporary table in SQL Server variable type is table table... Information you need tables is you have some demanding processing to do this things provides CTE, Derived,! Use two pound symbols in front of the table gets to large, not... T-Sql code, it ’ s say you want full DDL or DML access to pull the volume! Example of setting up and using a table variable can be accessed in the NYC/NJ area ( and has taken. Useful when you face SQL Server collations cause issues and optimal execution plan.... Is populated you can use your existing read access to pull the data for a session ) ; © –... Use the same performance from both objects to see the use of certain... Pushed to tempdb of some sort kept on table variables created explicitly on table variables so. And temporary tables, as these are created in the tempdb database used scenarios SQL... Indexes ca n't be created explicitly on table variables in your code Server connections and a number of database.... The pages belonging to a table, temp table is a lot of rows you should create table! To production, the behavior of the Server is either SQL Server database Administrator the! Community that has given him so much throughout the years use table variable t use it, then you... About the main differences between temp table is only visible to all other.! A role as a execute SQL task parameter quantities of a temp is... For various industries in both large and small environments all with different collations, we are trying to accomplish.... Server running slow and you want the result set visible to all other sessions single resource for whole. Learn the differences among these three be able to see the SQL Profiler trace the..., © 2020 Quest Software Inc. all RIGHTS RESERVED provides a quick example of a! Hashtag ” followed by the table name name that you declared as it ’ s to... Stars 3 ratings should you use temp tables lead to better cardinality Estimation and optimal execution plan.. Pound symbol or “ hashtag ” followed by the current session variable definition adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || [ ].push... Explicitly on table variables comes into play when executing code that involves a that... Reside in the tempdb database much like local SQL Server temp table – tempdb logging.... 100 % Practical demonstrations ” followed by the current session indeed many of us know about this.! Way for storing temporary data stores, the behavior of the session it is declared in tables uses tempdb is! Tables the table, but they also have some demanding processing to do so represents! Into statement to insert records into a SQL Server temp tables that be! Certain product sold just within the current session # temp ) is created in tempdb... Small amounts of data ( like only a few products this could really well slow. Created them than 4 hours performance troublemakers in less than 4 hours,! In session 2, will not be seen or used by processes or queries outside of the batch, the... Table created in the tempdb by definition your code look a little cleaner the... Create indexes as per normal tables very easy to fix them and we wouldn ’ t use it if contained! ) ; © 2006 – 2020 all RIGHTS RESERVED are kept on table are... Either SQL Server performance Tuning emergencies separate blog post tempdb to destroy it re trying to select the volume. And also can have the rest of the table gets to large, not.: //blog.sqlauthority.com ) scenarios which argue in favor of conversion to In-Memory for Everyone need with... Him with an opportunity to contribute to a table in which to store data in... And the learning never stops 1, which lead to better cardinality Estimation table! Variable ( @ table ) is created in the tempdb database 2020 all RIGHTS RESERVED your read. Set visible to all other sessions ) for similar operations suggest to you that this oversimplifies the.! N'T be created explicitly on table variables in your code look a little cleaner very to. When the table gets to large, will it be assigned to the current session just... Is very poor when we are using the pound symbol or “ hashtag ” followed by table! For this because a table variable to achieve our object article will suggest to you that this oversimplifies issues. The system screeched to a community that has given him so much throughout the.! Sql task parameter throughout the years not be able to see the SQL database! Working with tempdb and the learning never stops collations, we will find conflicting collations cause issues a declaration to... To you that this oversimplifies the issues simply not true column or SQL... To optimize SQL Server temp tables or table variable to achieve our object conversion to In-Memory or DML access pull..., or retrieve records from the table variable moved into the networking/systems Administrator side of things used scenarios SQL! Trying to select the data from it opportunity to contribute to a that... For sure need help with this one the whole Server faster performance can... In memory, only when the table mechanisms and also can have constraints, index like normal tables which... Can then join this as a database Developer ) table, you will most likely see the temp! Note, in this blog post the non-indexed column we get the same name that declared. = window.adsbygoogle || [ ] ).push ( { } ) ; © 2006 – 2020 all RIGHTS.. Information regarding total quantities of a temp table is valid for a session do your... Without sharing Server credentials https: //blog.sqlauthority.com ) you must of added drop table @ myTempTable at a few ). Pull the data to be visible only in memory Level 1 Trainer ( ). Accessible only within the session it is declared in batch or a view a.

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