Erucic Critics of canola oil are quick to point out that it is derived from rapeseed, many species of which contain high levels of erucic acid, a substance that in large amounts can be toxic to humans, according to Mayo Clinic nutritionist Katherine Zeratsky, a registered and licensed dietician 1. Because of the dangers that may come from ingesting or cooking with these plant oils, wellness experts recommend purchasing plant oils rich in erucic acid for massage or therapeutic purposes. acid erucic = acid nesaturat în gliceride şi în uleiul din seminţele de rapiţă şi de muştar. But, as current myths demonstrate, the negative connotations associated with rapeseed's name persisted. It is also the Latin for coleworth, which today is better known as kale. 2014. erucic — ERÚCIC adj. Omega-9 fatty acid. The confusion involves erucic acid, a substance in traditional rapeseed that has been linked with structural changes in heart tissues and other problems in animals. Critics of canola oil are quick to point out that it is derived from rapeseed, many species of which contain high levels of erucic acid, a substance that in large amounts can be toxic to humans, according to Mayo Clinic nutritionist Katherine Zeratsky, a registered and licensed dietician 1. Because it has been linked to cardiac muscle damage, oils such as canola oil were developed that are low in erucic acid. EFSA has identified the heart as the primary target organ for toxic effects of erucic acid (EFSA 2016). Citations Crossref 6 Web of Science 5 Scopus 8. For most consumers, especially for toddlers (1-2 years old) and other children (3-10), the main contributors to erucic acid exposure in the diet are pastries, cakes and biscuits. Erucic Acid. But it may be a long-term health risk for children up to 10 years of age who consume high amounts of foods containing this substance. Erucic acid is produced by elongation of oleic acid via oleoyl-coenzyme A and malonyl-CoA. Seeds from the brassica family of plants, which includes rapeseed and mustard, in addition to cabbage and kale, all contain varying amounts of erucic acid. high consumers, children, people following a specific diet, etc. Because it has been linked to cardiac muscle damage, oils such as canola oil were developed that are low in erucic acid. Erucamide is apparently hydrolysed to erucic acid, which can produce heart damage on feeding to laboratory animals. No. Altmetric Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. The total amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the oil is approximately 39% (with 38% alpha-linolenic acid). Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. Erucic acid (22 carbon atoms), from Latin word eruca, meaning arucola or garden rocket (Eruca sativa, a flowering plant of the family of Brassicaceae, synonym Cruciferae) is a unsaturated fatty acid (one cis (Z) double bond, from the methyl end is in omega-9 (ω-9) or n-9, so in shorthand 22:1n-9) member of the sub-group called very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), from 20 carbon atoms onwards. This in turn alters the normal functioning of the cell, and also the mitochondria (the source of energy for all our cells) which has its own membrane. Myocardial lipidoses can be associated with a reduction of the contractile power of the heart muscle. Canola oil is derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. We are therefore talking about a monounsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms, in which the only double bond is between the ninth and tenth carbon atom starting from the methyl end. David J. Anneken, Sabine Both, Ralf Christoph, Georg Fieg, Udo Steinberner, Alfred Westfechtel "Fatty Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. Medicinal uses for erucic acid. [Erucic acid is toxic at least in part because it alters the chemistry of cell membranes; numerous studies show the changes in cell membranes. This article reviews rapeseed oil, including its nutritional content, benefits, and potential downsides. Erucic acid (also see Fats) A fatty acid found in large amounts in rape and mustard seed oils, and widely (but mistakenly) thought to be toxic. [8]:646–657, Publication of animal studies with erucic acid through the 1970s led to governments worldwide moving away from oils with high levels of erucic acid,[5] and tolerance levels for human exposure to erucic acid have been established based on the animal studies. … comprise the (a) evaluation of the toxicity of erucic acid for animals and humans, considering all relevant adverse health effects; (b) estimation of the dietary exposure of the European Union (EU) population to erucic acid including the consumption patterns of specific (vulnerable) groups of the population (e.g. [7][9][10], In 2003, Food Standards Australia set a provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for an average adult of about 500 mg/day of erucic acid, extrapolated based on "the level that is associated with increased myocardial lipidosis in nursing pigs. But, as current myths demonstrate, the negative connotations associated with rapeseed's name persisted. Special Precautions & Warnings: The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Rats are unusual in their inability to process erucic acid, and the symptoms in rats caused by a diet with high levels of erucic acid has not been observed in pigs, primates, or any other animals. Maximum levels have been established for erucic acid in vegetable oils and fats, in foods containing added vegetable oils and fats and in infant formulae and follow-on formulae by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Studies done on laboratory animals in the early 1970s show that erucic acid appears to have toxic effects on the heart at high enough doses. Erucic Acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. erucic acid. The new name "canola" is a conjunction of "Canada oil low acid," which aptly describes the location and … Grice, H. & Heggtveit, H. (1983). Erucic acid is toxic and causes tissue damage in many organs of laboratory animals. Topics similar to or like Erucic acid. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. But canola has been specifically bred to be very low in erucic acid. Rapeseed oils made from plants which contain a large amount of erucic acid and used to produce oil containing up to 50% erucic acid pose health risks to humans and are not suitable for use in livestock feed. The canola plant contains many toxic acids, such as erucic acid, arachidonic acid, and others known to impair digestion. "[7] "There is a 120-fold safety margin between this level and the level that is associated with increased myocardial lipidosis in nursing pigs. Seeds from the brassica family of plants, which includes rapeseed and mustard, in addition to cabbage and kale, all contain varying amounts of erucic acid. erucic acid [ĕ-roo´sik as´id] a monounsaturated fatty acid that is a major constituent of certain oils, such as rapeseed oil. Although there have been no confirmed cases of erucic acid toxicity in humans, high levels of erucic acid have been linked to the formation of fatty deposits in heart muscle in animals. CRC Press, 2014, "Crambe, Industrial Rapeseed, and Tung Provide Valuable Oils", "The Biosynthesis of Erucic Acid in Developing Embryos of Brassica rapa", The Transformation of Rapeseed Into Canola: A Cinderella Story, Erucic acid in food: A Toxicological Review and Risk Assessment, CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, "Commission Directive 80/891/EEC of 25 July 1980 relating to the Community method of analysis for determining the erucic acid content in oils and fats intended to be used as such for human consumption and foodstuffs containing added oils or fats", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erucic_acid&oldid=992534710, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 381.5 °C (718.7 °F; 654.6 K) (decomposes), This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 19:49. Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found mainly in the Brassica family of plants such as canola, rapeseed, wallflower seed, mustard seed as well as Brussels spouts and broccoli. Erucic acid is a substance naturally found in some plant-derived oils, primarily in some varieties of mustard seed oil and high erucic acid rapeseed oil. Erucic acid, also know as cis–13-docosenoic acid, is an unbranched, monounsaturated fatty acid with a 22–carbon chain length and a single double bond in the omega 9 position. Canola oil is a plant-based oil from a variety of rapeseed that contains high amount of the non-drying colza oil but low in the toxic erucic acid( less than 2%). human infants have relatively low amounts of this enzyme and because of this, babies should not be given foods high in erucic acid. The confusion involves erucic acid, a substance in traditional rapeseed that has been linked with structural changes in heart tissues and other problems in animals. Cardiac effect of erucic acid, which is a member of omega-9 fatty acid, is investigated on doxorubicin treatment in this study. Synthesis of azelaic acid and brassylic acid. +39 0521 036 149E-mail: Press@efsa.europa.eu, Chemical contaminants, Chemicals in food, Animal health. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. In High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. For the purpose of this introduction, we will be talking about the known (and assumed) health benefits of mustard oil, which has the highest concentration of erucic acid among all the plant oils. Forty-eight rats were divided into eight groups and each group contained six rats … Effects of erucic acid supplemented feeding on chronic doxorubucin toxicity in rats Int J Clin Exp Med. Average consumer exposure ranges from 0.3 to 4.4 mg/kg bw per day across age groups. Elsevier. Otherwise, please use the Ask EFSA Service. CAS Number*: 112-84-5. Erucic Acid is an omega 9 oil, and certainly has inflammatory properties. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Figure 18. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (June 2003), Luger CL et al. erucic) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. EFSA was asked for a new risk assessment as part of a review of these maximum levels. Health effects. Like other fatty acids, it can be converted into surfactants or lubricants, and can be used as a precursor to biodiesel fuel. This is temporary and reversible. Levels in animal-derived products (meat, milk, eggs) transferred through animal feed would also be useful. Sursa: MDN … Dicționar Român. Genetic Modification Of Rapeseed. Chemical Structure The erucic acid is represented by the formula 22: 1 ω-9. There exist epidemiological evidence that pediatric brain tumor incidence is among the lowest in the Chinese population. And the Authority, in an opinion published this week , found a data gap in relation to available information on the carry-over of erucic acid in meat, milk and eggs resulting from feed use. It is an unhealthy fat that should be avoided from the diet. These substances along with other plant toxins like lectins, phytates, and goitrogens are capable of inhibiting protein digestion by decreasing the secretion of HCL (stomach acid) and protein-digesting enzymes. It is a very long chain fatty acid that when taken up into the cell membrane interferes in normal function. Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, which is present in the oil-rich seeds of the Brassicaceae family of plants, particularly rapeseed and mustard. In small doses, erucic acid is safe, but higher levels may be dangerous. In 1976 the EU set maximum limits for erucic acid as a contaminant in vegetable oils and fats, and foods containing added vegetable oils and fats as an ingredient. high consumers, children, people following a specific diet, etc. Share. But canola has been specifically bred to be very low in erucic acid. [6] An association between the consumption of rapeseed oil and increased myocardial lipidosis, or heart disease, has not been established for humans. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Erucic acid is also known as cis-13-docosenoic acid and the trans isomer is known as brassidic acid. However, the individual consuming at a high level has the potential to approach the PTDI. Also, specific maximum limits for infant formulae and follow-on formulae were set five times lower than for other foods. These factors include glucosinolates (goitrogenic), erucic acid (toxic), tannins, sinapine, phytic acid, and mucilage. Erucic acid does not contain chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm and therefore is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight. The experts noted however that they are likely to have overestimated this risk to account for limitations in the available scientific information. Research in animals indicates that, over long periods, erucic acid may cause a heart condition called myocardial lipidosis. Number of Pages: 4. [Erucic acid is toxic at least in part because it alters the chemistry of cell membranes; numerous studies show the changes in cell membranes. The dietary exposure assessment has concluded that the majority of exposure to erucic acid by the general population would come from the consumption of colza oil. Much of it is RoundUp ready - resistant to the toxic Glyphosate. It has limited ability to polymerize and dry for use in oil paints. A Closer Look at Erucic acid. To stay in business, Canadian rapeseed oil manufacturers looked for a way to reduce this component through cross-breeding, and the canola crop was born. The name erucic means "of or pertaining to Eruca", which is a genus of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae. Date of Publication: 2001 The same warnings of the toxic dangers of canola oil correctly state that ... Rapeseed oils made from plants which contain a large amount of erucic acid and used to produce oil containing up to 50% erucic acid pose health risks to humans and are not suitable for use in livestock feed. Format: PDF available for immediate download. For industrial purposes and production of erucic acid, rapeseed is used; for food purposes a 'low-erucic acid rapeseed' (LEAR) has been developed (canola), which contains fats derived from oleic acid instead of erucic acid.[3]. In pigs, feed levels of erucic acid are unlikely to represent a health concern. 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